HELMET Z-89.1 (ANSI) 1981
SAFETY GLASS Z-87+ (ANSI) 1968
SAFETY HARNESS Z-359.1 (ANSI) 10.4 SAFETY SHOES Z-47.1 (ANSI) 1967
RESPIRATOR Z-88.2 (ANSI) 1992
SAFETY ON SCAFFOLDING A-10.4 (ANSI)
It includes the following steps.
a.) Watch the job being done
b.) Break the job down into steps
c.) Described the hazards in each step of task
d.) Identity the desired controls measures and
e.) Implement these counter measures in the job executions.
Cold work permit
Confined space entry permit,
Night work permit,
Other permits as per job requirement.
8. WHAT IS CONFINED SPACE?
Fall of materials fall hazards electrocution dust sounds heat or cold caught in between moving
Equipments engulfment etc.
Accident is uncontrolled events that results in undesirable consequences to personnel injury, illness of the assets damage or loss or to the environment.
An Undesirable event which causes harm to personal Damage to property.
An Undesirable event which has the potential to cause loss.
Are injured high officials depending upon the severity of accident.
(If the wind velocity is up the 32 km or 20 miles then work should stop.)
v Crawler Crane
v Tower Crane
v Over Head Crane
But a flash back arrestor prevents reverse flow; stop the flow of flame from reaching the cylinder in the event of a flash back or the temperature exceeds a limit (220 degrees f.)
(2) Safety Net system.
(3)Personal Fall arrest system (BODY HARNESS)
Example: Wood, Cloth, Plastic, Rubber
Extinguisher- Water, DCP, Foam, CO2, Halon
Example: Gasoline, Diesel, Oil, Grease, Oil based paint, tar…
Extinguisher- CO2, Foam, DCP
Extinguisher - DCP, FM 200, Halon, Carbon dioxide.
Example: Magnesium, Potassium, Zinc, Calcium, Titanium
Extinguisher- Metal x-type, Combustatible metal type
In open excavation – At least every 30m on the perimeter, if less than 1.2m deep
- At every 7.5m on the perimeter, if more than 1.2m deep
Red tag – Do not use (is being erected or dismantled)
Yellow tag – Can use with 100% fall protection (is incomplete or cannot be completed)
Green tag – Safe to use (scaffolding is complete)
When using ladders, bottom rung must not be more than 24 inches high. Ladder to be at the correct angle (i.e. Feet out for every 4 feet in height) Ladders are to be tied at both sides not by the rungs. Make sure the ladder extends a safe distance (at least 90cm) above the landing stage. When the horizontal travel distance exceeds 15 meters provide at least two accesses. If the platform is longer, access shall be provided at every 30 meters. The ladder should be free from damage and should be color coded. All access ladders must be tagged.
Example- Any activity at an elevation more than 1.8 meter such as erection, dismantling or maintenance of scaffolding pipes, equipments.
73) What is the angle to fixed the Ladder?
Life line is component that consists of a flexible line that connects to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically or that connects to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally and which serves
as a method to connect component of a personnel fall arrest system to the anchorage.
77) How can we calculate the safe anchorage of a life-line?
COSHH - Control of Substance Hazardous to Health
OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration
CFR - Court of Federal Regulation
OHSAS - Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series
ELCB - Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker
GFCI - Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter
BSI - British Standard Institute
SWL - Safe Working Load
ANSI - American National Standard Institute
LTI - Lost Time Incident
LMI - Load Movement Indicater
MSDS - Material Safety Data Sheet
TWA - Time Wated Average
STEL - Short Term Exposure Limit
ERP - Emergency Response Plan
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Material
JSA - Job Safety Analysis
LEL - Lower Explosive Limit
UEL - Upper Explosive Limit
PEL - Permissible Explosive Limit
REL - Recommended Exposure Limit
PSI - Pound per Square Inches (1 bar = 14.7 psi)
STEL - Short Term Exposure Limit
WBGT - Wet Bulb Globe Temperature
APR - Air Purifying Respirator
ASR - Air Supplying Respirator
SCBA - Self Contained Breathing Apparatus
RSO - Radiation Safety Officer
NFPA - National Fire Protection
Use fire blanket to protect immovable combustible materials and also for welding slugs.
Cover the area with fire blanket for containment of sparks generated while doing hot work.
Provide proper fire extinguisher in sufficient numbers.
Appoint a fire-watch with red jacket, if necessary.
Barricade the area and post proper signage.
Use of proper PPE and damage free
Conduct gas test if presence of combustible gases expected prior to work.
To rectify the cause of those near misses before it turns into accidents.
To identify the deficiencies of site safety performances and find remedial actions.
To improve safety performances by reducing LTA’s incidents and near misses.
Observe the direction of wind flow, proceed out in the cross wind direction to the plant boundary fence and then proceed up wind.
Obey further instructions from emergency response team.
Resume work after getting clearance only.
There area supervisor will call his workers with attendance sheet and confirm that nobody is trapped in the site. This procedure is called head counting. Its purpose is to ensure all workers are present in the assembly area, they are safely evacuated and identify the person if anybody is trapped and take necessary actions to rescue these trapped workers.
Generally pulse raises 20 beats per minute for each 1 degree C rise in temperature, heat cramps: Exercising in hot weather can lead to muscle cramps, because of brief imbalances in body salt.
Heat exhaustion: further losing of fluid and salt can lead to dizziness and weakness body temperature may rise up to 102 degree F.
Heat stroke: In some cases, extreme heat can upset body’s thermostat, causing body temperature to rise to 105 degree F. or higher. Symptoms are lethargy, confusion and unconsciousness, heat stroke can kill.
v E.g., clay, salty clay, sandy clay & clay loam
Type A soils cannot have or be subjected to the following:
v Subjection to vibration from traffic, pile driving or similar conditions
v Been previously disturbed
v Or if it has been subjected to other factors that would change it’s classification
v E.g., angular gravel, silt, silt loam, sandy loam and previously disrobed soils except those which would be classified as Type C soil
v Also includes soils that meet some of the requirements of Type A soils but is fissured or subject to vibration; or dry rock that is not stable.
v E.g. granular soils including gravel, sand and loamy sand
v Also submerged soil or soil from which water is freely seeping or submerged rock that is not stable
v A natural solid mineral material that can be excavated with vertical sides and will remain intact while exposed.
Maximum allowable slopes
v Stable rock: vertical (90degrees)
v Type A: ¾ :1 (53degrees)
v Type B 1:1 (45degreed)
v Type C : 1 ½ : 1 (34degrees)
v ½ : 1 (63 degrees ) slope is allowed for only short term excavations that are 12feet deep or le
2) Cylinders should be stored in a well ventilated area-preferable in open air but protected from the weather.
3) The store should be away from fire risks and source of heat and ignition. Nothing else should be stored in the area.
4) The cylinders should be stored upright on a firm level, well drained surface free from hollows and cavities. All long grass, weeds etc. should be removed.
5) Cylinders should be secured so as they are prevented from falling over, when in storage or use.
6) Cylinders should be segregated within the store according to type and weather full or empty.
7) Oxygen and oxidizing gases should be separated flammable gases by 6m or by a fire resistant partition.
8) No electrical apparatus should be installed within a cylinder store unless it is constructed to a suitable standard for the hazard.
9) No cylinder should be used in a storage area.
10) Appropriate warning signs “HIGHLY FLAMMABLE”. NO SMOKING”, “FULL/EMPTY” etc. should be displayed.
11) Suitable fire fighting apparatus should be situated adjacent to the store. Typically dry powder fire extinguishers. These should be inspected and maintained at intervals not exceeding 1 year.
13) Where it is necessary to take precautions vandalism or theft, suitable protection cages should be used.
14) Each cylinder should be adequate marked to include the manufacturer’s mark and serial number, together with an indication of the specification to which the cylinder is constructed and its years of manufacture. A date of test and pressure test, together with weight of cylinder and the name of the product, should be displayed.
15)When gas cylinders are to be transported they should be protected from physical damage and the consequences of any leaks that may occur minimized
16)Move cylinders by hand in proper cylinder trolleys where the cylinder is secured in the trolley.
17)Take great care when lifting cylinders as they can be very heavy and awkward to handle.
18)Before moving any cylinders remove all attached equipment including regulators and safety cap
must be provided.
19)The cylinders should be properly supported and secures within the vehicle so they cannot move
during the journey. They should be totally within the vehicle and protected from impact.
20)The cylinders should be checked to ensure that the valves are closed and there are no leaks.
21)The vehicle should be equipped with a suitable fire extinguisher. Typically dry powder, minimum capacity 2kg.
22)There should be no smoking within the vehicle while crying cylinders.
23)The driver of the vehicle should be conversant with the load and have written information on the hazards and the action to be taken should any problems occur. The driver should also have training in the operation of the fire extinguisher and any other safety equipment carried.
Starving – Remove the fuel / remove the material going to burn
Cooling – Reduce the heat / use water
Has NO pressure gauge-capacity verified by weight 3-8 ft. maximum effective range.
Extinguisher by smothering burning materials, Effectiveness decreases as temperature of burning material increases.
Halon – Class “A”,”B”, or “C” fires (smaller sizes ineffective against class “A”). 9-17 lb. Halon 1211 (pressurized liquid) releases as vapor (8-18 seconds discharge time). Has pressure gauge to allow visual capacity check 9-16 ft. maximum effective range. Works best in confined area – ideal for electronics fire due to lack of residue. Extinguishers by smothering burning materials, Fumes toxic if inhaled, Halon is ozone depleting chemical – production halted in Jan ’94.
What is S
95) What is the formula for incident rate? Number of Record able injuries X 200,000
Number of employees Hour Worked
200,000 is the equivalent of 100 full time employees working for 40 hours per week or 50 weeks per year (OSHA guidelines)
97) What is Fire?
A) Fuel any material which can burn like Paper, Rubber, Wood, Oil, Lubricants, Gases, Metals like Phosphorous, Magnesium.
B) Heat or temperature at which the any fuel can ignite this depends on its flash point.
C) Oxygen which is helping in combustion and is present in the air.
A) Remove the burning material, the remaining materials will be safe.
B) Cut off the Oxygen by blanketing with foam or Fire blanket or any other materials which
can not burn the oxygen will be cut off and fire extinguished.
C) Remove or lessen the heat with water or use Carbon Dioxide fire cylinder. Never use Water for Electric Fire as water is good conductor of electricity and you will get electric shock if water is used for electric fire.
99) What common type of the fire extinguisher is used for fire?
Lack of fresh air or Oxygen, Heat, Fumes, Toxicity of storage Contents, Noise any other annoyance, causing disturbance in normal work.
Material Safety Data Sheet
Identifying hazards and risk involve in a specific job and control measures required to eliminate them or bring them to minimum acceptable limit for the job to be done in safe manner
Before erecting scaffolds assess the work area for existing and for potential future hazards which may impact on the work.
b) Sill Boards
c) Screw Jack
e) Vertical tubes or Bearer also called LEDGERS
f) Horizontal tubes or Ledgers also called STANDARDS
g) Transoms connected across the width
h) Hand rails mid rails
i) Toe Boards
l) Diagonal Bracings for stability
b) Synthetic/Nylon Webbings
c) Chain Slings
2) 05 wires broken in one strand in one lay
3) 1/3rd of original diameter is scrapping or worn
4) Kink crushing, bird caging, or other damage or distortion of wire rope structure
5) Evidence of heat damage
6) End attachments that are cracked worn or damaged
7) Hooks open more than 15% of normal throat
8) Twisted more than 10 degrees from the plane
2) Outriggers fully extended
3) Mats to be used for stability
4) Crane radius of swing should be barricaded and no one to cross under the suspended load
5) Ensure clear of obstructions
6) Load chart available in the cabin
7) Qualified Operator and rigger to rig the loads
8) Only one rigger is authorized to signal the operator
9) Do not lift the load beyond the rated capacity of the crane
10) Wind speed not more than 20miles/hr or 32km/hr
11) Anti two block system working
12) Load monitoring indicator operational
13) Telescopic boom free moment
14) Operators cabin have clear view and not obstructed
1) Pits sumps
4) Tanks Sewers
A) High Temperature
B) High Noise
C) Fall from Elevation
E) Oxygen deficiency
It is temporary platform
A) System Scaffolding
B) Under Hang Scaffoldings
C) Mobile Scaffolding
D) Bract Scaffolding
E) Tower Scaffolding
F) Tube and Copular scaffolding
B) Base Plates
1. Right angle couplers
2. Right angle Double couplers
3. End to End Couplers
4. Adjustable Couplers
5. Girder Couplers
F) Top rail
G) Mid rail
1. Should be in between top rail and toe boards
H) Toe Board
1. Distance between toe board to top rail should be 38 to 43 inches
1. Zigzag bracings
2. Transverse bracings
3. Longitudinal bracings and cross bracings
v What can go wrong
v What can cause its going wrong
v What can we do to prevent it from going wrong
v Always walk against wind direction
v If you driving a vehicle, stop on road side switch off engine and proceed to assembly area and let the key should inside the ignition point.
v Head count will taken by Safety Officer in assembly area.
v Do not come to work tell all clear alarm sounds.
Last work day case
Restricted work case
Medical treatment case
First aid case
Near miss Incident
v An incident, which could cause property damage or personal injury and if we will not stop near miss incidents then can happen an accident.
Awareness about work situation to the employee is called toolbox talk
A development of safety bricfings and deal with special issues at the workplace.
132) What is DBA?
v DBA Decibel at scale A
v Upper Explosive Limit
Level of Flammable gases or toxic gasses should be zero
Level of Oxygen should be in between 19.5 – 23.5 in volume
v Green tag - Scaffolding is safe to work
v Yellow - Use full body harness is required with double Lyn yard
v Red tag - Means scaffolding is unsafe or not able to use (only scaffolder can work)
Note: Safety Harness can bear the weight 2450kg
v Hot work permit is required
v Area should be barricaded and warning signage should be placed
v Area should be clean at least 8 meters (free from combustible materials)
v Fire extinguisher and fire blankets should be available
v Trained fire watch man should be available
v Fire water drum should be available
Note: Welder must use complete PPE’s (Welding Helmet, Gloves and Long sleeves shirt)
Safety is a state where risk has been eliminated or reduced to an acceptable level
Fire is a chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation or burning of a fuel. It needs three elements to occur
Fuel can be any combustible material – solid, liquid, or gas. Most solids and liquids become a
Oxygen the air we breathe is about 21 percent oxygen. Fire only needs an atmosphere with at least 16 percent oxygen.
Heat is the energy necessary to increase the temperature of the fuel to a point where sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occur.
Flash Point is the lowest temperature at which a fuel produces enough vapors to ignite in the presence of a heat source.
Dust consists of solid particles and is created by such operations as grinding or sieving of solid materials, controlled detonations and various drying processes.
Fumes are finely particulate solids which are created by condensation from a vapor, very often after a metal has been converted to the molten state. Fumes are usually highly toxic.
Gas is the formless chemical which occupies the area in which it is enclosed. There are many toxic gases used in industry, such as chlorine.
Mist consists of finely suspended droplets formed by condensation from a gas or the atomizing of a liquid or from aerosols.
Vapors are the gaseous form of a solid or a liquid, rise in temperature causes the vaporization. Examples are organic solvent vapors’.
Liquid is a typical example of a liquid, Can be in other forms as droplets or aerosols.
Substances and preparations which in very low quantities cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled swallowed or absorbed via the skin.
Toxic substances and preparation that in low quantities cause death or acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled swallowed or absorbed via the skin.
Corrosive is substances and preparations that may on contact destroy living tissues.
The density of a material is defined as the mass of one cubic meter of material
DENSITY = MASS/VOLUME
We can therefore say that any liquid that will not dissolve (not miscible) in water, with a specific gravity higher than 1, will sink, whilst those with a specific gravity lower than 1 will float on top. For example:
1m3 of water (1000 liters) weights 1000kg
1m3 of aviation gasoline (1000 liters) weight 720 kgs
Heat is a form of energy. Heat can be produced by chemical means, e.g., by burning aviation fuel or by mechanical means, by fiction. Passing electric current through a resistor also produces heat as in an electric fire.
Substances that consist of only one type of atom are known as elements. EX. CARBON
If an element consists of more than one of the same type of atom, chemically bound together, it is known as a molecule. EX. OXYGEN, The term molecule can also be used to describe a substance that is made up of more than one type of atom, water is example.
A mixture is a term used to describe a substance that is made up of more than one type of molecule. EX. WATER
Combustion is a chemical process. For it to occur, oxygen, usually from the air, must combine with a fuel. A fuel is any substance that will burn and may be in any one of the three states, solid, liquid or gas. EX. SMOLDING OR FLAMING
(% Fuel/Air by volume)
Shop floor representatives, supervisors and managers who meet to discuss general health and safety matters affecting the company
A person’s point of view, or their way of looking at something.
Doing the wrong thing, believing it to be right
A peer group is a group of individuals of a similar age or background with whom a person mixes in a social context.
The workplace group is such a group and we behave in accordance with the collective, accepted behavior of the group.
Communication is defined as, imparting, conveying or exchanging information, ideas or opinion by the use of speech, written, or graphics.
Written a postal service or a notice board
Oral or Verbal (spoken) a personal interview or telephone system
Used to draw attention to hazards and risks or safe practices and measures, need to be ‘eye catching’ and relevant.
A development of safety briefings and deal with specific issues at the workplace
Key document laying out company policy and certain procedures, Effective as part of induction training
The purpose of an investigation is primarily to find the cause, with the intention of preventing a recurrence, rather than to blame
Reactive Monitoring, which is used in the investigation of accidents, incidents or dangerous occurrences-After
Pro-active monitoring, which involves checking that standards, practices, procedures and system are being complied with. Before
Inspections involve examining, testing and making repairs/adjustments to such items, often specified by the manufacturer or supplier.
A formal inspection by a team of inspectors who go round an area or section of work to check on standards; e.g floor condition, HK, warning signs, fire equipment
An in-depth examination of specific procedures such as the introduction of new equipment, or investigating a rise in accident or incident rate
Liquids, dusts, fumes, mists
Exposure to bacteria, viruses and fungi
Mechanical, noise, radiation, heat etc. also includes ergonomic factors
Refers to mental stress
A safe system of work is: a formal procedure which results from systematic examination of a task in order to identify all the hazards
A permit to work can be described as: A formal document giving written.